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Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.
Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.
Executive summaryDragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.
Response and PoCIn The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.
A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactionsOn Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:
Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.
How it works & scales
Architectural ScalingDragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.
Economic ScalingAn interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.
Scaled DeploymentDragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.
Flexibility in ScalingDragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table
How to run itBuilding on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
ArchitectureDragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.
APIs (on chain & off)
Known issues or tradeoffs
Costs and resources
Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.
This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum
Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to considerDragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.
Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactionsDragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.
Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.
Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees
Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interfaceFrom interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.
Exiting is fast & simpleWithdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.
Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.
Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
Documentation should be clear and completeFor full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.
Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.
Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!
TIMECommunity points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.
Dragon DenDragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.
Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.
Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone elseUsers can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.
Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone elseThrough our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw
Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offlineIf necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.
A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be availableTo our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.
Bonus pointsSee above
Compatibility with HSMs & hardware walletsFor the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.
Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directlyThis operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.
One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalableThis is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).
Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferredDragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).
ConclusionWhether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!
Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open SourceThe team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.
Open SourceIn 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document
Dragonchain FoundationThe Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017. https://den.social/l/Dragonchain/24130078352e485d96d2125082151cf0/dragonchain-and-disney/
While I don't think that everybody needs to run a node, a full node does publish blocks it considers valid to other nodes. This does not amount to much if you only consider a single node in the network, but many "honest" full nodes in the network will reduce the probability of a valid block being withheld from the network by a collusion of "hostile" node operators.But surely this will not get attention here, and will be downvoted by those people that promote the narrative that there is no trade off in increasing the blocksize and the people that don't see it are retarded or are btc maxis.
When there was only 2 nodes in the network, adding a third node increased redundancy and resiliency of the network as a whole in a significant way. When there is thousands of nodes in the network, adding yet another node only marginally increase the redundancy and resiliency of the network. So the question then becomes a matter of personal judgement of how much that added redundancy and resiliency is worth. For the absolutist, it is absolutely worth it and everyone on this planet should do their part.What is the magical number of nodes that makes it counterproductive to add new nodes? Did he do any math? Does BCH achieve this holy grail safe number of nodes? Guess what, nobody knows at what number of nodes is starts to be marginally irrelevant to add new nodes. Even BTC today could still not have enough nodes to be safe. If you can't know for sure that you are safe, it is better to try to be safer than sorry. Thousands of nodes is still not enough, as I said, it is much cheaper to run a full node as it is to mine. If it costs millions in hash power to do a 51% attack on the block generation it means nothing if it costs less than $10k to run more nodes than there are in total in the network and cause havoc and slowing people from using the network. Or using bot farms to DDoS the 1000s of nodes in the network. Not all attacks are monetarily motivated. When you have governments with billions of dollars at their disposal and something that could threat their power they could do anything they could to stop people from using it, and the cheapest it is to do so the better
You should run a full node if you're a big business with e.g. >$100k/month in volume, or if you run a service that requires high fraud resistance and validation certainty for payments sent your way (e.g. an exchange). For most other users of Bitcoin, there's no good reason to run a full node unless you reel like it.Shouldn't individuals benefit from fraud resistance too? Why just businesses?
Personally, I think it's a good idea to make sure that people can easily run a full node because they feel like it, and that it's desirable to keep full node resource requirements reasonable for an enthusiast/hobbyist whenever possible. This might seem to be at odds with the concept of making a worldwide digital cash system in which all transactions are validated by everybody, but after having done the math and some of the code myself, I believe that we should be able to have our cake and eat it too.This is recurrent argument, but also no math provided, "just trust me I did the math"
The biggest reason individuals may want to run their own node is to increase their privacy. SPV wallets rely on others (nodes or ElectronX servers) who may learn their addresses.It is a reason and valid one but not the biggest reason
If you do it for fun and experimental it good. If you do it for extra privacy it's ok. If you do it to help the network don't. You are just slowing down miners and exchanges.Yes it will slow down the network, but that shows how people just don't get the the trade off they are doing
I will just copy/paste what Satoshi Nakamoto said in his own words. "The current system where every user is a network node is not the intended configuration for large scale. That would be like every Usenet user runs their own NNTP server."Another "it is all or nothing argument" and quoting satoshi to try and prove their point. Just because every user doesn't need to be also a full node doesn't mean that there aren't serious risks for having few nodes
For this to have any importance in practice, all of the miners, all of the exchanges, all of the explorers and all of the economic nodes should go rogue all at once. Collude to change consensus. If you have a node you can detect this. It doesn't do much, because such a scenario is impossible in practice.Not true because as I said, you can DDoS the current nodes or run more malicious nodes than that there currently are, because is cheap to do so
Non-mining nodes don't contribute to adding data to the blockchain ledger, but they do play a part in propagating transactions that aren't yet in blocks (the mempool). Bitcoin client implementations can have different validations for transactions they see outside of blocks and transactions they see inside of blocks; this allows for "soft forks" to add new types of transactions without completely breaking older clients (while a transaction is in the mempool, a node receiving a transaction that's a new/unknown type could drop it as not a valid transaction (not propagate it to its peers), but if that same transaction ends up in a block and that node receives the block, they accept the block (and the transaction in it) as valid (and therefore don't get left behind on the blockchain and become a fork). The participation in the mempool is a sort of "herd immunity" protection for the network, and it was a key talking point for the "User Activated Soft Fork" (UASF) around the time the Segregated Witness feature was trying to be added in. If a certain percentage of nodes updated their software to not propagate certain types of transactions (or not communicate with certain types of nodes), then they can control what gets into a block (someone wanting to get that sort of transaction into a block would need to communicate directly to a mining node, or communicate only through nodes that weren't blocking that sort of transaction) if a certain threshold of nodes adheres to those same validation rules. It's less specific than the influence on the blockchain data that mining nodes have, but it's definitely not nothing.The first reasonable comment in that thread but is deep down there with only 1 upvote
The addition of non-mining nodes does not add to the efficiency of the network, but actually takes away from it because of the latency issue.That is true and is actually a trade off you are making, sacrificing security to have scalability
The addition of non-mining nodes has little to no effect on security, since you only need to destroy mining ones to take down the networkIt is true that if you destroy mining nodes you take down the network from producing new blocks (temporarily), even if you have a lot of non mining nodes. But, it still better than if you take down the mining nodes who are also the only full nodes. If the miners are not the only full nodes, at least you still have full nodes with the blockchain data so new miners can download it and join. If all the miners are also the full nodes and you take them down, where will you get all the past blockchain data to start mining again? Just pray that the miners that were taken down come back online at some point in the future?
The real limiting factor is ISP's: Imagine a situation where one service provider defrauds 4000 different nodes. Did the excessive amount of nodes help at all, when they have all been defrauded by the same service provider? If there are only 30 ISP's in the world, how many nodes do we REALLY need?You cant defraud if the connection is encrypted. Use TOR for example, it is hard for ISP's to know what you are doing.
Satoshi specifically said in the white paper that after a certain point, number of nodes needed plateaus, meaning after a certain point, adding more nodes is actually counterintuitive, which we also demonstrated. (the latency issue). So, we have adequately demonstrated why running non-mining nodes does not add additional value or security to the network.Again, what is the number of nodes that makes it counterproductive? Did he do any math?
There's also the matter of economically significant nodes and the role they play in consensus. Sure, nobody cares about your average joe's "full node" where he is "keeping his own ledger to keep the miners honest", as it has no significance to the economy and the miners couldn't give a damn about it. However, if say some major exchanges got together to protest a miner activated fork, they would have some protest power against that fork because many people use their service. Of course, there still needs to be miners running on said "protest fork" to keep the chain running, but miners do follow the money and if they got caught mining a fork that none of the major exchanges were trading, they could be coaxed over to said "protest fork".In consensus, what matters about nodes is only the number, economical power of the node doesn't mean nothing, the protocol doesn't see the net worth of the individual or organization running that node.
Running a full node that is not mining and not involved is spending or receiving payments is of very little use. It helps to make sure network traffic is broadcast, and is another copy of the blockchain, but that is all (and is probably not needed in a healthy coin with many other nodes)He gets it right (broadcasting transaction and keeping a copy of the blockchain) but he dismisses the importance of it
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
You are a bunch of stinking k####rs. It is going to be great to see all the k####rs die from Covid in the next few months. Viva Covid!!!
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The trading robots are enhanced with intelligent and sophisticated software that permits the robots to detect the best trading opportunities within the cryptocurrency market within minutes. cryptosoft is obtainable in over a hundred and fifty countries; please view the official website to know if your country is on the list.
Below, we have presented a outline that best describes our experience with cryptosoft;
one). We have run many analytics tests on the auto trading platform, and our results were assessed, we have a tendency to discovered that the success score for cryptosoft is 96percent.
2). The volatile nature of the cryptocurrency market and risks are lowered by this automated system as a result of the trading robots work terribly fast to perform profitable trades.
three). Investors are allowed to make deposits and begin earning, the lowest deposit accepted on the cryptosoft platform is $250, while the best deposit value is $fifteen,000.
four). Please click here to start your expertise with the cryptosoft trading robot
We have a tendency to found it simple to check the features on the cryptosoft platform as a result of of the high-quality of the location. We think this is often a good issue and merit note because a responsive website will encourage a lot of individuals to sign up and begin making money with the trading robot.
My team has expertise in the area of testing and analysing auto trading robots. But I may not facilitate noticing that anyone could use the easy options and perceive how to urge started while not any help. That is how easy the user interface on the official cryptosoft website is, we tend to were impressed.cryptosoft Scam
Who invented the cryptosoft Auto Trading Platform?
We have a tendency to dug into the complete’s history to understand how cryptosoft was created. We revealed that a team of software engineers and cryptocurrency traders are accountable for the creation and launch of cryptosoft. The founding team continues to be managing the auto trading platform and they are professionals. We have a tendency to interacted with some members of the team and can state here that there are plans to create cryptosoft even more profitable for investors.
How cryptosoft works
We set to check the auto trading system to identify how it works before continuing with the creation of an account. My team discovered that the cryptosoft uses an operational model like alternative outstanding auto trading platforms for cryptocurrency like Bitcoin Rush, and Bitcoin Loophole. You'll scan our reviews for these 2 auto trading software on our website. The system is majorly about shopping for the cryptocurrency at an occasional price and selling when the price rises. It sounds extremely straightforward, but the cryptocurrency market is very vast, and it's not simple to follow all the market trends manually. This is often why we tend to have made the switch to use auto trading robots that can create additional cash from the cryptocurrency market, compared to trading manually. When the trading robot detects a probably profitable transaction, it acts independently to pick out and secure the transaction for the investor whose account and funds are used for trading. The transaction is held until the value of the cryptocurrency that has been bought rises; it can then be sold to create a profit
The developers of cryptosoft have created it straightforward for everybody to speculate and start creating cash with the system. They have set the minimum deposit on cryptosoft at an occasional price that's cheap by many people. We have a tendency to are happy regarding this, with as low as $250, anyone can start leveraging the live trading system to form money from the cryptocurrency market.
We tend to discovered that each one the transactions done on cryptosoft are in real-time. My team was happy regarding this because it gives us additional advantage to closely study the system and confirm how reliable it is. In the subsequent part, we tend to have written about our expertise, starting with the creation of a brand new account, that we have a tendency to needed to test the live trading features on cryptosoft.
How to urge started with cryptosoft
We have a tendency to had already scan about the quick and pleasant expertise alternative users had while gap a replacement cryptosoft account, thus we have a tendency to were ready for it, and they were right, we have a tendency to created and registered a new cryptosoft account in less than five minutes.
The registration method on cryptosoft is thus quick because only some details are requested from the user. We tend to only needed to finish the registration form by providing a user name, email address, and phone variety. Next, we tend to created a password and clicked on the submit button to begin the account verification method. Verification lasted only a couple of minutes, and we have a tendency to were set to use our new cryptosoft account.
We planned to start tiny, that may be a sensible plan for new investors. We tend to deposited $250 into our new cryptosoft account. It absolutely was straightforward, all we tend to had to try to to was select a payment choice, and click on the transfer button.
cryptosoft offers users a likelihood to watch how live trading is completed with the demo feature. It shows the exact method, but there's no risk because real cash is not involved when you utilize the demo feature.
We tend to were excited concerning our 1st live trading expertise with cryptosoft. The auto trading system allowed us to line trading limits. This is a stop-loss feature that prevents an investor from losing all their funds within the market trends flip negative. The live trade session started with a click on the button.
We tend to let the robots trade for concerning vi hours; this gave my team enough time to check how it works. We tend to will ensure that the trading robots perform quick transactions, abundant faster than experienced traders can do throughout manual trades. That's how the system secures the best cash creating opportunities for the account owner using the live trading feature.
We had a beautiful time using the live trading feature, our first trading expertise ended with the system creating us richer. Yes, we have a tendency to created a profit without doing any work.
Note: We encourage beginners to use the demo trading feature. It shows how the system works and provides you a chance to review the method of live trading without the employment of real money.
Features of the cryptosoftTrading Platform
The payout system on cryptosoft calculates the users’ earnings and credits their cryptosoft account accurately. We have a tendency to checked to ensure that our funds were paid correctly into our account balance. There were no issues. The high success score on cryptosoft increases the chances of making thus abundant money after every live trading session.
The cryptosoft verification system is quick and efficient. It is a nice feature, the verification system prevents errors whereas making a brand new account, and it stops bots from using cryptosoft to trade coins in the market.
cryptosoft has an spectacular withdrawal method. Whereas many different trading robots require weeks to process withdrawal requests, our deposit was transferred to the checking account we provided within 24-hours. This can be great news for investors who might want fast access to funds when earning with cryptosoft.
The payout system takes a proportion from the profit an investor makes when a live trading session. This is how the house owners of cryptosoft create cash to manage the auto trading system
A section of the official cryptosoft website has been dedicated to that includes testimonials from happy investors who are making a heap of cash from the cryptocurrency market. We felt therefore happy reading this section of the site. It continuously feels smart to know that many people are changing into financially free with the utilization of good technology.
The customer service is offered 24/seven; this is often such a smart plan as a result of there are investors from completely different parts of the globe who may want to contact the client support team from regions with different time zones. We have a tendency to used the customer service feature; the response was fast and terribly helpful.
A new cryptosoft account can be created and verified in minutes. The account creation process on different trading platforms could take up to a week before approval.
It's absolve to open an account, and therefore the system is transparent. Many platforms for trading robots charge for everything from gap accounts to making a deposit.
Everybody will use the auto trading robot; the features are straightforward and user-friendly. The advanced systems on other trading platforms will cause users to make mistakes and lose cash.
The possibilities of earning a profit on all transactions are high as a result of of the efficient and quick trading robots. It's troublesome to establish the potency of the trading robots, that creates risks.
cryptosoft offers its users access to twenty fouseven customer service. The client service is mostly unreliable.inner
five. Use client service. The customer support team is usually prepared to help, please avoid guessing and use the customer support system as typically as necessary.
These are tips from experienced cryptocurrency traders. You can begin your experience with auto trading platforms for cryptocurrency the right approach and begin earning by following the following tip
We have a tendency to encourage you to go to our bitcoin robot page to read concerning the opposite automated cryptocurrency trading platforms we have tested and reviewed.
While reading about cryptosoft on-line, we have a tendency to saw many claims concerning endorsements by celebrities such as Gordon Ramsay, Elon Musk, Peter Jones, and many others. Interestingly, we conjointly found claims that recommended cryptosoft has been analysed and supported by the hosts on well-liked TV shows such as The Shark Tank, The Dragon’s Den and also the Morning Show. We needed to confirm this data as a result of there were no indications of any celebrity endorsements on the official website. And we were right; these claims are all false and should be
cryptosoft has not been endorsed by any celebrities or TV shows. The false claims are posted online by affiliate marketers who are making an attempt to drive traffic to their sites.
Based on our experience with the cryptosoft auto trading platform, we tend to can ensure that each investor will become terribly rich with cryptosoft. The trading platform is legit and absolutely registered. cryptosoft is offered in over 150 countries, and thus several investors are earning as high as $one,500 every day. We tend to have tested the options of cryptosoft, and it works perfectly. We tend to made a profit during the live trading session and withdrew our earnings while not any problems. cryptosoft is accessible via the browser on a smartphone, laptop, or desktop pc. The positioning is secure and easy to use while not any specialised talent. We tend to advocate cryptosoft to everybody as a result of the auto trading platform has been designed with easy features that folks will use while not any formal traini
Yes, you'll, the trading robots do all the work, and every one you need to try to to is create a deposit. There are investors who build as abundant as $1,five hundred each day. There is therefore abundant money to create from the cryptocurrency market.
How long should I use the pc throughout a trading session?
You might pay 20 minutes or less every day, all you wish to try and do is activate a live trading session and stop the session with a click. You'll be able to stop the session when you are satisfied with the profit earned that day.
The traing robots work with an intelligent system and algorithm that lowers the potential market risks. This can be why traders are now using trading robots rather than manual trading ways.
nce a person starts using the Ethereum Code, he/she does not have to employ any other technical indicator or strategies of their own since the application takes care of the rest. All that one has to do is routinely monitor the performance of the bot and see that the trading parameters that had been set beforehand are left as they are.ditionally, the video also carries a message from Marc Weston, the CEO of Ethereum Code, in which he speaks about the core idea underlying the product. In his own words, the idea to create Ethereum Code came to him after he started talking to one of his office colleagues who had been able to amass quite a massive fortune by investing in Bitcoin at the turn of the last decade.submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]
Let's review Ethereum Code bot and see if the automatic cryptocurrency trading platform is a scam or it is a legit software program that can truly produce real profits.
ditionally, the video also carries a message from Marc Weston, the CEO of Ethereum Code, in which he speaks about the core idea underlying the product. In his own words, the idea to create Ethereum Code came to him after he started talking to one of his office colleagues who had been able to amass quite a massive fortune by investing in Bitcoin at the turn of the last decade.
Let's review Ethereum Code bot and see if the automatic cryptocurrency trading platform is a scam or it is a legit software program that can truly produce real profits
ame of Marc Weston. In his own words, prior to creating this novel trading bot, he worked as a backend staff member for a number of different multinational software corporations. However, he then decided to ditch his 9-5 career in favor of becoming a full-time crypto trader. Whether or not the validity behind Marc Weston is real or not remains to be seen as there is not much information made available to research more about his story and credentialsStep 1: Account Creation
As with any exchange platform. Ethereum Code also requires users to create their personal trading account. To do this, one has to click on the ‘start now’ button located at the top right side of the app’s landing page. Following this, users need to fill out their details (such as name, email address, country of residence, etc).
Before submitting any money into the app, users are provided with an opportunity to run a full trial of the algorithms that govern the trading bot. In order to do this, all one has to do is go and click on the “Go to Demo”. Following this, the platform will automatically take you to a simulation zone where you will be given $1,500 worth of virtual funds. These funds can then be used for trading in real-life market conditions without any risks. The entire process is quite simple and it is recommended that the bot be left to do its thing for a period of at least 30 to 45 minutes.
Once the aforementioned demo trading phase has concluded, users can proceed to deposit funds into their personal Ethereum Code accounts (given that they are satisfied with the overall efficacy of the platform first). In order to make a deposit, one has to click on the “Go to Live” button and then proceed with the deposit. Once the process has been initiated, users will be sent a message from the app’s admin staff. The entire process is quite streamlined but a deposit can take a few days to execute
Step 4: Start the Trading Process
Once all of the initial formalities are done, users can start using Ethereum Code by simply clicking on the red “Off” button under the “Auto Trading” tab. As soon as this is done, the app starts to source out the best available trade opportunities available at that given moment.
What Makes Ethereum Code Bot Better Than Others?
While none of this is factually provable upon reviewing The Ethereum Bot trading service, here is what the official website claims:
(i) Easy to use: When compared to a number of other similar products available in the market today, Ethereum Code is extremely simple and straightforward to use
(al any details related to their credit/debit cards or Paypal account.
As a quick recap on the trending automated cryptocurrency trading software platform, let's answer the most pressing questions about Ethereum Code Bot
A: The Ethereum Code Bot claims to be an automated trading software that analyzes current trading trends in the market using a state-of-the-art algorithm that automatically makes trading bets on your behalf. The accuracy, legitimacy and veracity of the Ethereum Code is largely unproven and unfounded despite the numerous claims of producing real results and profits for users.
A: According to the official website, the Ethereum Code trading bot says the sky is the limit about profits it can earn for traders. Depending on the initial amount deposited, users are expected to earn daily profits which is all outlined in the members area. While the Ethereum Bot makers boldly state and would like to have you believe thousands of dollars are possible a day, it is likely not a reality for the majority if any. However, one might suspect some profit is available given the glorification of their trading bot software but it is a buyer beware opportunity to say the least. High risk, medium reward is possibly another way of putting it.: Apparently this amazing auto-trading bot is free to use for all users. It is unclear how much the full Ethereum Code software service price is despite being free to
While there is never a magic software that can help investors get rich overnight, Ethereum Code seems to be a risky yet semi-legit tool that can allow users to maximize their crypto returns in the easiest, most hassle-free manner possible.
To start making use of the ‘ground-breaking, automated cryptocurrency trading application', all one has to do is go to the official company website and follow the instructions that have been outlined there. The entire process is quite simple and should not take more than 10-15 minutes to complete. Just beware of the inherent risks in using an automated trading platform and service, as either are capable of failing and disappearing overnight.
From using the actual Ethereum Code bot trading service and it being a scam to losing money on its automated investments, either are both possibilities that everyone should keep in mind if opting to try the Ethereum Code. There are other opportunities that may fit the scope of what your goals and needs are in terms of generating cryptocurrency profits like The Investment of the Decade and Crypto Income Quarterly that may be exactly what you are looking for versus using the automated crypto trading bot service, the Ethereum Code.
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]
CRYPTO TRADINGbitcoin code Review:Is It Trustworthy Or Is It A Scam?With the automated trading software, bitcoin code, you can now trade Bitcoin and other cryptos profitably. Browse this honest and unbiased review before you invest.AvatarPublished four month ago on April 08, 2020By Daniel Reggio
If you're fascinated by trading Bitcoin, chances are that you've got come across multiple trading platforms that promise the simplest trading expertise, and bitcoin code might be one in all them.
You have in all probability heard of stories regarding folks who have made tons of thousands of dollars and even millions, by investing in Bitcoin and different cryptocurrencies. However, there's a need to exercise caution because one can still make losses or maybe lose your money to scam brokers. That's why it is necessary to determine whether or not the broker or the software you would like to use is legitimate or a scam, so our review of bitcoin code.
Let us study what this powerful automated cryptocurrency trading software has to offer.
An entrepreneur and software developer known as Steve McKay developed bitcoin code, and his goal was to create a system that traders from all over the globe might profit from. He aimed to deliver a universal trading software that will permit investors to profit from the cryptocurrency market. He based the algorithm for the Bitcoin trading software on trends that are common within the stock market and also in the cryptocurrency market.
McKay’s software will predict global market trends through its combination of advanced technology and massive volumes of information. It is additionally designed to handle fast transactions therefore that it will exploit sharp declines and will increase in cryptocurrency prices. In addition, its automated mode ensures it can enter and exit trades on behalf of the trader, while not any human intervention.
bitcoin code is advertised on its web site as an avenue for traders to achieve financial freedom since it is able to deliver a high success rate. Even the testimonials listed on the web site feature people who claim to create thousands of greenbacks on a daily basis. Mckay says that the bitcoin code software managed to get more than $18 million in profits inside the first six months once it commenced operations. Thus, with so several positive reviews and promises to make real profits, the large question is – Is bitcoin code your best bet when trying to form some real cash off Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies?
bitcoin code is a Bitcoin trading software that's designed to assist investors to take advantage of investment opportunities within the cryptocurrency market. The software has inbuilt bots that monitor cryptocurrency price movements and then notifies investors thus that they'll use the lucrative trading opportunities.
bitcoin code already has thousands of active accounts, which means that that several people are using it. This Bitcoin trading service is additionally accessible across the world. It is rapidly becoming fashionable mainly as a result of it offers a system that is straightforward to be told, so providing a sleek trading experience even for brand spanking new traders. That is, even if you've got never traded online before and you have no expertise in the monetary markets, with the bitcoin code software, you can profit from trading cryptocurrencies. The platform additionally offers investors the option of trading manually or automatically. In addition, the trading software is also ideal for people who need to trade full-time not solely as a result of of the two options of manual and automated, however additionally as a result of it is fully capable of handling transactions quickly and accurately. The end result is profitable trades enabling a trader to earn a gradual income.
The automated choice of the bitcoin code means that that the system takes over the investing method on your behalf, which suggests that that you'll watch it make profits in real-time whereas you go about doing different things in your life. You might even be fast asleep, and bitcoin code will open trades for you. Another issue that makes bitcoin code quite an enticing software is that it achieves a high winning ratio at additional than ninety% on the automated mode. This makes it ideal for anyone that wants to earn some passive income from the cryptocurrency market.
The Signup Process – How To Open An Account With The bitcoin code
bitcoin code’s signup process is kind of straightforward as half of its goal of attracting additional users. Opening an account is totally free, therefore you can open an account while not depositing money at initial since it has a demo possibility. The trial account allows you to trade with virtual money, which can not be withdrawn, but the conditions are like those in an exceedingly live account.
Gekko is a Bitcoin trading bot and backtesting platform that supports 18 different Bitcoin exchanges (including Bitfinex, Bitstamp and Poloniex). Gekko is free and 100% open source that can be found on the GitHub platform. This automated trading bot even comes with some basic trading strategies, so using it seems rather straightforward. Are you curious to find the best crypto bots & terminals for automated Bitcoin trading? It is indeed, a fact that the best cryptocurrency trading bots can perform faster than you, make more trades than you, trading bots don’t have emotions, and they can trade the markets without the need for sleep, resulting in constant profit-making 24/7/365. The best Bitcoin Trading Bots to Automatically Trade Bitcoin. The use of the bot software is absolutely free of charge, as the provider only retains a small commission from the arbitrage won in the event of success. The Bot Software is also available in German. Furthermore, there are API interfaces for 4 large and popular Bitcoin exchanges Discover best crypto trading bots overviewed for 2020 ️. Get full info about free and paid bitcoin bots 📈 to automate your crypto currency trading, 💸 top exchanges, features and prices, 💰 the cons and pros of using these tools. The Bitcoin trading bot of your choice depends on your trading experience, programming skills, and, of course, the size of your pocket. Meanwhile, you can avoid third parties completely by creating your own best free crypto trading bot, but this is a viable option only for seasoned traders who have a great command of numerous programming
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